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The purulent lesions were observed only in 0. All bovine and most of swine isolates All bovine isolates carried VAPB type The prevalence of vapB-positive R. Not only swine, but also even apparently healthy cattle or horse carcasses should be considered as a potential source of R.

Current screening tests for Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals lack adequate accuracy for clinical use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of qPCR for vapA in serially collected fecal samples as a screening test for R. One hundred and twenty-five foals born in at a ranch in Texas. Fecal samples were collected concurrently with thoracic ultrasonography TUS screening examinations at ages 3, 5, and 7 weeks. DNA was extracted from feces using commercial kits and concentration of virulent R.

Subsequently affected foals had significantly greater concentrations of vapA in feces than foals that did not develop pneumonia unaffected and subclinical foals at 5 and 7 weeks of age. Accuracy of fecal qPCR, however, was poor as a screening test to differentiate foals that would develop clinical signs of pneumonia from those that would remain free of clinical signs including foals with subclinical pulmonary lesions attributed to R.

In the population studied, serial qPCR on feces lacked adequate accuracy as a screening test for clinical R. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human lung epithelial cells during Rhodococcus equi infection. Rhodococcus equi is an opportunistic human pathogen associated with immunosuppressed people. While the interaction of R. Here, we characterized the entry process of this bacterium into human lung epithelial cells. The invasion is inhibited by nocodazole and wortmannin, suggesting that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and microtubule cytoskeleton are important for invasion.

Pre-incubation of R. Also, the invasion process as studied by immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy indicates that R. Infected lung epithelial cells upregulate the expression of cytokines IL-8 and IL-6 upon infection. The production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly enhanced in culture supernatants from cells infected with non-mucoid plasmid-less strains when compared with cells infected with mucoid strains. These results demonstrate that human airway epithelial cells produce pro-inflammatory mediators against R.

Two pairs of primers were designed according to the BC48 gene of B. The specificity, sensitivity and reliability of the method were tested. The horse blood samples of suspected cases were collected from Yili region, and detected by the duplex PCR, microspopy, conventional PCR, and fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the results were compared. No specific fragment was amplified from DNA samples of B. The limit of detection was 4. Among the 24 blood samples, 11 were found B. A duplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of B. Infections by Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in Jordanian equids: epidemiology and genetic diversity.

Microscopic diagnosis of equine piroplasmoses, caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, is hindered by low parasitaemia during the latent phase of the infections. However, this constraint can be overcome by the application of PCR followed by sequencing. Multiplex PCR indicated that T. Sequences of 69 PCR amplicons obtained by the 'catch-all' PCR were in concordance with those amplified by the multiplex strategy.


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Computed minimal adequate model analyses for both equine piroplasmid species separately showed a significant effect of host species and age in the case of T. Phylogenetic analyses inferred the occurrence of three genotypes of T. Moreover, a novel genotype C of B. The dendrogram based on obtained sequences of T. The infections with T. Chloroplast genomes of Arabidopsis halleri ssp. We investigated the complete chloroplast cp genomes of non-model Arabidopsis halleri ssp. Detailed bioinformatics analysis revealed genome sizes of both subspecies ranging between Both cp genomes encode genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 transfer RNA genes.

Whole cp genome comparison of A. The location and distribution of repeat sequences were determined, and sequence divergences of shared genes were calculated among related species. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the entire genomic data set and 70 shared genes between both cp genomes confirmed the previous phylogeny and generated phylogenetic trees with the same topologies. The sister species of A.

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Characterization of Theileria equi genotypes in horses in Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan. Equine theileriosis caused by Theileria equi is endemic in the Middle East, where it causes a severe disease as well as widespread subclinical infection.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of T. Blood samples from horses from Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan were tested for the prevalence of T. The results were used for genotype characterization and phylogenetic analysis of T. In contrast, the EMA-1 gene showed little diversity with all sequences clustering in the same clade apart from one Jordanian sequence. Results suggest that although the Israeli horse population is small and relatively confined geographically, it is probable that the genetic variability, which was found among Israeli horses, is a result of introduction of horses from other countries.

It also suggests that the EMA-1 gene is probably not a good target for the evaluation of variance in T. Characterization of the different genotypes prevalent in a certain region is important in order to map out the intra-species sequence heterogeneity of the parasite, which is needed in order to develop new diagnostic tools and vaccines. The sensor kinase MprB is required for Rhodococcus equi virulence.

Rhodococcus equi is a soil bacterium and, like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a member of the mycolata. Through possession of a virulence plasmid, it has the ability to infect the alveolar macrophages of foals, resulting in pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia. The virulence plasmid has an orphan two-component system TCS regulatory gene, orf8, mutation of which completely attenuates virulence. This study attempted to find the cognate sensor kinase SK of orf8. Annotation of the R. This identified six SKs as significantly up-regulated during growth in macrophages.

Mutants of these SKs were constructed and their ability to persist in macrophages was determined with one SK, MprB, found to be required for intracellular survival. The attenuation of the mprB- mutant, and its complementation, was confirmed in a mouse virulence assay. In silico analysis of the R. The results of this study also show that R. MprB is the first SK identified as required for R. Efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in eliminating Theileria equi from experimentally infected horses.

Theileria equi , one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis, is endemic in many regions of the world but is considered a 'foreign' animal disease in the USA. In an effort to prevent the importation of T. Current regulatory options available where horses are found to be infected include permanent quarantine with or without chemotherapy, repatriation, or euthanasia.

Chemotherapeutics that eliminate infection and subsequently transmission risk are critical in the management of infected horses. In this study, the efficacy of the drug imidocarb dipropionate against experimental T. Of nine horses experimentally inoculated with T. The findings support the use of this drug as a potential treatment option in controlling outbreaks of T.

Assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches. Background: Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi , Babesia caballi, or both, cause significant economic losses in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. Methods: T. Serological and molecular detection of Theileria equi in sport horses of northeastern Brazil. Theileriosis is a worldwide protozoal tick-borne disease caused by Theileria equi , which may produce a variety of clinical signs and turn infected horses into lifetime carriers.

This study has aimed to perform a serological and molecular detection of T. In overall, No significant association was found when presence of ticks, age, gender, anemia or total plasma proteins was analyzed with seropositivity and molecular techniques. Although a significant association of infection was found in two cities.

Thus, local risk factors other than presence of ticks, horse age, gender, anemia and total plasmatic proteins may dictate prevalence of T. Novel bacteriophage lysin with broad lytic activity protects against mixed infection by Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. They are among the many Gram-positive pathogens for which resistance to leading antibiotics has emerged.

As a result, alternative therapies need to be developed to combat these pathogens. We have identified a novel bacteriophage lysin PlySs2 , derived from a Streptococcus suis phage, with broad lytic activity against MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. To date, no other lysin has shown such notable broad lytic activity, stability, and efficacy against multiple, leading, human bacterial pathogens; as such, PlySs2 has all the characteristics to be an effective therapeutic.

Adhesion activity of glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase in a Chinese Streptococcus suis type 2 strain. A total of 36 streptococcal strains, including seven S. Except from non-virulent SS2 strain T1 5, all strains harboured gapdh. The comparison revealed a Adherence assay data demonstrated a significant p Seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in five draught equine populated metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan. Equine piroplasmosis EP caused by intraerythrocytic parasites Theileria equi and Babesia caballi is an emerging equine disease of world-wide distribution.

In Pakistan, the prevalence and incidence of EP are unknown. Out of equid serum samples tested, The overall seroprevalence of EP was A small proportion of equids Seroprevalence of T. Theileria equi is a tick-borne piroplasm considered endemic in equines in Brazil. The cohabitation of domestic and wild animals in areas of extensive cattle breeding favors the close contact between different species and the sharing of vectors and, consequently, pathogens. We report the natural infection of a young South American tapir Tapirus terrestris by T.

Although it was not possible to associate the clinical and hematologic status of the animal with the infection by the protozoan parasite, our report represents an alert on the sharing of pathogens between domestic and wild animals. A novel method to generate unmarked gene deletions in the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi using 5-fluorocytosine conditional lethality. A novel method to efficiently generate unmarked in-frame gene deletions in Rhodococcus equi was developed, exploiting the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorocytosine 5-FC by the action of cytosine deaminase CD and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase UPRT enzymes.

The opportunistic, intracellular pathogen R. To exemplify the use of the codA::upp cassette as counter-selectable marker, an unmarked in-frame gene deletion mutant of R. The supA and supB genes, part of a putative cholesterol catabolic gene cluster, were efficiently deleted from the R. Thus, cholesterol metabolism does not appear to be essential for macrophage survival of R. The CD-UPRT based 5-FC counter-selection may become a useful asset in the generation of unmarked in-frame gene deletions in other actinobacteria as well, as actinobacteria generally appear to be 5-FC resistant and 5-FU sensitive.

Electronic properties, such as dielectric strength , capacitance, resistance, and inductance, vary significantly and The distribution of the number of muons in extensive air showers EAS and the equi -intensity curves of EAS are analyzed on the basis of Monte Carlo simulation of various cosmic ray composition and the interaction models. Problems in the two best combined models are discussed. Influence of Rhodococcus equi on the respiratory burst of resident alveolar macrophages from horses.

Rhodococcus equi is the etiologic agent of a devastating pneumonia of sporadic incidence in foals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of R. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 6 anesthetized, healthy, light-breed, adult horses by bronchoalveolar lavage. In this study the respiratory burst of equine alveolar macrophages was only evidenced by the hexose monophosphate shunt activity and superoxide anion was not coincidentally produced.

Rhodococcus equi did not adversely affect that response. The insignificant superoxide anion production by the alveolar macrophages suggests that this may not be a significant oxygen metabolite in those cells. Diversion of phagosome trafficking by pathogenic Rhodococcus equi depends on mycolic acid chain length. Rhodococcus equi is a close relative of Mycobacterium spp. We have screened a transposon mutant library of R. The longest kasA mutant mycolic acid chains were 10 carbon units shorter than those of wild-type bacteria. Coating of non-pathogenic E. The mutant was moderately attenuated in macrophages and in a mouse infection model, but was fully cytotoxic.

Whereas loss of KasA is lethal in mycobacteria, R. This study demonstrates a central role of mycolic acid chain length in diversion of trafficking by R. In vitro and intra-macrophage gene expression by Rhodococcus equi strain Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular respiratory pathogen of foals that persists and multiplies within macrophages. In foals, virulence is associated with kb plasmids, which include a pathogenicity island PI containing the virulence-associated protein vap gene family, but detailed understanding of the basis of virulence is still poor.

A 60 spot-based DNA microarray was developed containing eight PI genes and 42 chromosomal putative virulence or virulence-associated genes selected from a recent partial genome sequence in order to study transcription of these genes by R. In addition to seven PI genes, nine chromosomal genes involved in fatty acid and lipid metabolism choD, fadD13, fbpB , heme biosynthesis hemE , iron utilization mbtF , heat shock resistance and genes encoding chaperones clpB, groEL , a sigma factor sigK , and a transcriptional regulator moxR were significantly induced in R.

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The pattern of R. This study has identified genes, other than those of the virulence plasmid, the transcription of which is enhanced within equine macrophages. These genes should be investigated further to improve understanding of how this organism survives intracellularly.

Equine piroplasmosis EP is the cause of persistent tick-borne infection with no symptoms, but the most important problem of EP is due to the persistent carrier state. Carrier animals to Babesia Theileria equi Laveran and B. The purpose of this study was to identify the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis based on molecular and microscopic assays in equids from Kurdistan Province, Iran. Thirty one horse and mule blood samples were used with history of living in Kurdistan Province of Iran. The blood specimens were utilized for T. The results clearly showed the presence of B.

Theileria equi DNA in 30 of 31 blood samples The obtained results demonstrated the presence of hidden B. Theileria equi infection in horses with previous habitance in Kurdistan Province of Iran. The carrier animals became a main source of infection and can transmit the disease.

Therefore, hidden infection might be considered as a health threatening and limiting factor in animals used in therapeutic antisera research and production centers. Background: Equine piroplasmosis EP is the cause of persistent tick-borne infection with no symptoms, but the most important problem of EP is due to the persistent carrier state. Methods: Thirty one horse and mule blood samples were used with history of living in Kurdistan Province of Iran. Results: The results clearly showed the presence of B. Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrated the presence of hidden B.

The market of the Solar Power Satellite must be worldwide, because it can be provide electricity anywhre in the world from the Earth's orbits. We have perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provide by the Space Solar Power, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries.

We are starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia and the benefits and disadvantages of he SSP for Indonesia.

Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot SPS. Exploring internal features of 16S rRNA gene for identification of clinically relevant species of the genus Streptococcus. Background Streptococcus is an economically important genus as a number of species belonging to this genus are human and animal pathogens. The genus has been divided into different groups based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The variability observed among the members of these groups is low and it is difficult to distinguish them.

The present study was taken up to explore 16S rRNA gene sequence to develop methods that can be used for preliminary identification and can supplement the existing methods for identification of clinically-relevant isolates of the genus Streptococcus. Results The framework based analysis was used to segregate Streptococcus spp. This segregation was validated using species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. Conclusions The markers generated exploring 16S rRNA gene sequences provided useful tool that can be further used for identification of different species of the genus Streptococcus.

Structure of the virulence-associated protein VapD from the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi. VapD is one of a set of highly homologous virulence-associated proteins from the multi-host pathogen Rhodococcus equi. Rhodococcus equi is a multi-host pathogen that infects a range of animals as well as immune-compromised humans.

Equine and porcine isolates harbour a virulence plasmid encoding a homologous family of virulence-associated proteins associated with the capacity of R. VapD is a monomer as determined by multi-angle laser light scattering. Sequence comparisons indicate that the core folds of the other plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins from R.

It is further shown that sequences encoding putative R. This consensus statement update reflects our current published knowledge and opinion about clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology, treatment, complications, and control of strangles.

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This updated statement emphasizes varying presentations in the context of existing underlying immunity and carrier states of strangles in the transmission of disease. We reiterate the importance of judicious use of antibiotics in horses with strangles. This updated consensus statement reviews current vaccine technology and the importance of linking vaccination with currently advocated disease control and prevention programs to facilitate the eradication of endemic infections while safely maintaining herd immunity.

Differentiation between immune responses to primary and repeated exposure of subclinically infected animals and responses induced by vaccination is also addressed. Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now.

Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions.

There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December , the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year , when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment.

The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator.

The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for. Successful therapeutic management of concurrent subclinical Eimeria leukarti and Babesia Theileria equi infection in a mare. The occurrence of Eimeria leukarti infection in equine is being sporadically documented despite its cosmopolitan prevalence. Detailed systemic clinical examination of mare confirmed subclinical enteric infection with E. She was therapeutically managed with synchronous administration of specific and supportive therapy with success.

Non specific clinical manifestations of the disease in equines, its debatable pathogenic significance, predisposing immunosuppressive impact of concurrent B.

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A molecular and haematological study of Theileria equi in Balkan donkeys. Equine piroplasmosis in donkeys has been recognised as a serious problem of major economic importance. The present molecular study is the first investigation of the presence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Balkan donkeys and of the possible haematological alterations related to it.

A total of 70 apparently healthy donkeys from Serbia were included in this study. The overall prevalence of T. There was no B. Infections in donkeys included in this study seem to be associated with decreased red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and platelet count, and with increased white blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Altered haematological parameters in donkeys can lead to a decrease in working capacity and production performance. Further molecular research and long-term monitoring of equine piroplasmosis is needed in Serbia and throughout Europe.

The SSP 4: A world of deepening inequality. We use demographic and economic assumptions, in combination with technology and non-climate policy assumptions to develop a quantitative representation of energy, land-use and land-cover that are consistent with the SSP 4 storyline. The resulting scenario is one with stark differences across regions. Electrification increases in these regions, with the increased generation being met by nuclear and renewables. Low-income regions, however, stagnate due to limited growth in income.

These regions continue to depend on traditional biofuels, leading to high pollutant emissions. Due to a declining dependence on fossil fuels in all regions, total radiative forcing only reaches 6. We explore the effects of mitigation effort on the SSP 4 world, finding that the imposition of a carbon price has a varied effect across regions.

In particular, the SSP 4 mitigation scenarios are characterized by afforestation in the high-income regions and deforestation in the low-income regions. A custom-designed microarray containing virulence genes of Streptococcus pyogenes group A Streptococcus [GAS] was used to test group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp.

Virulence factors, usually carried by human beta-hemolytic streptococcal pathogens, such as streptokinase, laminin-binding protein, and the C5a peptidase precursor, were detected in all human isolates but not in bovine isolates. Determinants located in non-bacteriophage-related mobile elements, such as the gene encoding R28, were detected in all bovine and human isolates.

Our findings indicate that alpha-hemolytic bovine GCS, an important mastitis pathogen and considered to be a nonhuman pathogen, carries important virulence factors responsible for virulence and pathogenesis in humans. A- equi -2 influenza in horses in the Republic of South Africa. In early December A- equi -2 influenza virus was isolated for the first time in the Republic of South Africa. All horses were susceptible to the highly contagious aerosol-borne orthomyxovirus resulting in widespread outbreaks of equine influenza with typical primary respiratory symptoms.

Treatment consisted of rest, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and good nursing. Future protection can be obtained by vaccination. Seroepidemiological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in asymptomatic horses and donkeys from southeast Turkey. In order to assess the level of Rhodococcus equi infection in southeast Turkey, sera from healthy foals and adult horses and 78 sera from donkeys were tested by indirect ELISA using a R. Eighty The prevalence of seropositive horses in Sanliurfa Province was higher than in Diyarbakir Province; 56 In Sanliurfa Province Horses 1 to 5 years of age were found to have the highest seropositivity rate in both provinces.

A total of 78 sera from donkeys were investigated in Sanliurfa Province, of which 9 Among the 9 positive sera, 6 No positive sera were found in donkeys less than 1 year old. Five These results indicate the existence of R. Similar infection rates were found for donkeys in Sanliurfa. This suggests the importance of serological surveys to diagnose R. Seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses in Spain.

Equine piroplasmoses are enzootic parasitic diseases distributed worldwide with high incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. In Spain, there is insufficient epidemiological data about equine piroplasmoses. The main aim of the present study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in five regions and obtain information about the risk factors.

This study was conducted in the central and south-western regions of Spain, using indirect fluorescence antibody testing IFAT in 3, sera samples from apparently healthy horses of different ages, breeds, coat colours, genders and geographical locations. Consequently, this revealed the importance of developing an appropriate technique to detect each haemoparasite. Loading system mechanism for dielectric elastomer generators with equi -biaxial state of deformation. Dielectric Elastomer Generators DEGs are devices that employ a cyclically variable membrane capacitor to produce electricity from oscillating sources of mechanical energy.

Capacitance variation is obtained thanks to the use of dielectric and conductive layers that can undergo different states of deformation including: uniform or non-uniform and uni- or multi-axial stretching. Among them, uniform equi -biaxial stretching is reputed as being the most effective state of deformation that maximizes the amount of energy that can be extracted in a cycle by a unit volume of Dielectric Elastomer DE material.

This paper presents a DEG concept, with linear input motion and tunable impedance, that is based on a mechanical loading system for inducing uniform equi -biaxial states of deformation. The presented system employs two circular DE membrane capacitors that are arranged in an agonist-antagonist configuration. An analytical model of the overall system is developed and used to find the optimal design parameters that make it possible to tune the elastic response of the generator over the range of motion of interest.

An apparatus is developed for the equi -biaxial testing of DE membranes and used for the experimental verification of the employed numerical models. Assessment of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches. Equine piroplasmosis EP caused by Theileria equi , Babesia caballi, or both, contributes to significant economic loss in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. This study focuses on surveying T. Theileria equi and B. Hematological alterations were evaluated using a standard cell counter.

Microscopic analysis revealed EP infection in IFAT detected Nested-PCR analysis identified The overall EP incidence found in the population under study was relatively high and comparable regardless of the diagnostic method used Hematologic analysis revealed macrocytic hypochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia in all piroplasma-infected horses.

The data confirm relatively high levels of EP, likely causing hematological abnormalities in equines in Egypt, and also suggest the need for an improved serological test to diagnose B. Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans. Beck and F. Cariogenic properties of LDH deficient mutants of streptococcus mutans. J Dent Res 57, Special Issue. The transportation infrastructure is a vital backbone of any regional economy as it supports workforce mobility, tourism, and a host of socioeconomic activities.

In this article, we specifically examine the incident management function of the transportation infrastructure. In many metropolitan regions, incident management is handled primarily by safety service patrols SSPs , which monitor and resolve roadway incidents. In Virginia, SSP allocation across highway networks is based typically on average vehicle speeds and incident volumes. This article implements a probabilistic network model that partitions "business as usual" traffic flow with extreme-event scenarios. Results of simulated network scenarios reveal that flexible SSP configurations can improve incident resolution times relative to predetermined SSP assignments.

Four flavanones pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin , one dihydroflavonol 7-methyl aromadendrin and one flavone hispidulin have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. Artemisia campestris L. A small group of long-term income assistance IA recipients in New Brunswick was offered an earnings supplement and employment services SSP Plus ; a second group was offered the regular SSP earnings supplement only; and a third group was offered neither supplement nor…. Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans. Three strains of Streptococcus mutans belonging to serotypes a, c, and f were transformed to streptomycin resistance by deoxyribonucleic acids derived from homologous and heterologous streptomycin-resistant strains of S.

Homologous transformation of S. Capsule treatments to enhance seedling emergence of Gaura neomexicana ssp. Management of riparian vegetation is difficult because these communities are frequently impacted by herbivores, invasive weeds, and altered hydrologic regimes. Multiple and intertwined factors affecting rare species recruitment are particularly difficult to identify. Gaura neomexicana ssp. Seed ecology of a rare sage, Salvia dorrii ssp. Although related taxa occur throughout the western United States, Salvia dorrii ssp. In part, its narrow distribution may be attributed to its limited fruit production, low seedling establishment, and germination requirements.

Heavy herbivory pressures decreased the numbers of mature fruits in populations in two different Site-specific integration of Streptomyces PhiC31 integrase-based vectors in the chromosome of Rhodococcus equi. Streptomyces PhiCbased site-specific integration was used to transform the facultative intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi. The transformation efficiency of vectors incorporating the PhiC31 integrase and attP sites was comparable to that of replication plasmids using the same electroporation procedure.

A single attB integration site was identified within an ORF encoding a pirin-like protein, which deviates slightly from the consensus sequence of Streptomyces attB sites. Vector integration was stably maintained in the R. In addition, integration does not appear to affect the replication of bacteria inside macrophages. Finally, this integration system was also used to successfully complement an R. Bastos, Reginaldo G. Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites.

Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. Apicomplexans Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are the causative agents of bovine babesiosis, and apicomplexan Theileria equi causes equine piroplasmosis.

Bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis are the most economically important parasite diseases that affect worldwide cattle and equine industries, respectively. The recent sequencing of the B. Using B. Transcripts for all three CCp genes were found in vivo in blood stages of T. However, no protein expression was detected in T. Collectively, the data demonstrated a differential pattern of expression of three orthologous genes of the multidomain adhesion CCp family by B.

The novel CCp members represent potential targets for innovative approaches to control bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

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Experimental vizualization of 2D photonic crystal equi -frequency contours. Photonic crystals have been extensively studied for their unique optical properties that promise interesting novel devices. Our contribution is focused on a 2D photonic crystal structure formed by Al2O3 layer on silicon substrate, patterned with periodic hexagonal lattice of deep air holes. Azimuthal angle dependences of the specular light reflection were recorded photo-electrically at various angles of icidence and wavelengths.

Data obtained were processed via mapping in reciprocal k-space. The method promises a possibility to visualize the equi -frequency contours and get more detailed information about the properties of the sample used. The effect of mutation on Rhodococcus equi virulence plasmid gene expression and mouse virulence. An 81 kb virulence plasmid containing a pathogenicity island PI plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals but its specific function in virulence and regulation of plasmid-encoded virulence genes is unclear.

Using a LacZ selection marker developed for R. Virulence testing by liver clearance after intravenous injection in mice showed that the ORF4 and ORF8 mutants were fully attenuated, that the phoPR mutant was hypervirulent, and that virulence of the ORF10 mutant remained unchanged. No code is necessary to receive great deals at amirashop. Hurry before the deals are gone.

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